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Quantitative evaluation of the lumbosacral sagittal alignment in degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis

Serik K. Makirov, MD,1 Andrew A. Yuz, MD,1 Mohammed T. Jahaf, MD,1 Anastasia A. Nikulina, BS2

1Traumatology, RMAPE, Moscow, Russia 2Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow, Russia


Goal of the study

This study intends to develop a method of quantitative sagittal balance parameters assessment, based on a geometrical model of lumbar spine and sacrum.


One hundred eight patients were divided into 2 groups. In the experimental group have been included 59 patients with lumbar spinal stenosis on L1-5 level. Forty-nine healthy volunteers without history of any lumbar spine pathlogy were included in the control group. All patients have been examined with supine MRI. Lumbar lordosis has been adopted as circular arc and described either anatomical (lumbar lordosis angle), or geometrical (chord length, circle segment height, the central angle, circle radius) parameters. Moreover, 2 sacral parameters have been assessed for all patients: sacral slope and sacral deviation angle. Both parameters characterize sacrum disposition in horizontal and vertical axis respectively.


Significant correlation was observed between anatomical and geometrical lumbo-sacral parameters. Significant differences between stenosis group and control group were observed in the value of the "central angle" and "sacral deviation" parameters. We propose additional parameters: lumbar coefficient, as ratio of the lordosis angle to the segmental angle (Kl); sacral coefficient, as ratio of the sacral tilt (ST) to the sacral deviation (SD) angle (Ks); and assessment modulus of the mathematical difference between sacral and lumbar coefficients has been used for determining lumbosacral balance (LSB). Statistically significant differences between main and control group have been obtained for all described coefficients (p = 0.006, p = 0.0001, p = 0.0001, accordingly). Median of LSB value of was 0.18 and 0.34 for stenosis and control groups, accordingly.


Based on these results we believe that that spinal stenosis is associated with an acquired deformity that is measureable by the described parameters. It's possible that spinal stenosis occurs in patients with an LSB of 0.2 or less, so this value can be predictable for its development. It may suggest that spinal stenosis is more likely to occur in patients with the spinal curvature of this type because of abnormal distribution of the spine loads. This fact may have prognostic significance for develop vertebral column disease and evaluation of treatment results.

sagittal lumbosacral balance, lumbar lordosis, lordosis angle, lumbosacral sagittal alignment
Volume 9 Article 68