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The Influence of Lordotic cages on creating Sagittal Balance in the CMIS treatment of Adult Spinal Deformity

Neel Anand, MD,1 Ryan B. Cohen, BS,2 Jason Cohen, BS,3 Babak Kahndehroo, MD,1 Sheila Kahwaty, PA-C,1 Eli Baron, MD1

1Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, 2Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, 3Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY



CMIS techniques are heavily dependent on placement of lateral interbody cages. Cages with an increased lordotic angle are being advocated to improve segmental lordosis and SVA. We assessed the segmental lordosis achieved with the individual cages. We further studied three variables and the effect each had on segmental lordosis: the lordosis angle of the cage, the position of the cage in the intervertebral space, and the level that it has been placed. 


This is a retrospective study of 66 consecutive patients who underwent lateral interbody fusion using lordotic cages as part of CMIS correction of scoliosis from June 2012 to January 2016. Standing radiographs at pre op and 6-week follow-up were reviewed to identify the position of the cage in the intervertebral space and the amount of segmental lordosis achieved.


A total of 224 cages were placed. The 6°, 10°, 12°, and 20° cages achieved a mean segmental lordosis of 9.00°, 13.09°, 13.23°, and 18.32°, respectively (P < .05). Additionally, cages placed in the anterior, middle, and posterior 3rd of the disk space produced 13.02°, 11.47°, and 8.23° of lordosis, respectively (P < .05). Stratifying by level, cages placed at T12-L1, L1-2, L2-3, L3-4, and L4-5 translated to mean segmental lordotic values of 8.43°, 10.02°, 11.38°, 12.91°, and 14.58°, respectively (P < .05). 


The angle of the cage had an impact on segmental lordosis. Achieved segmental lordosis was notably more when the cage was placed in lower lumbar levels. Additionally, cages placed in the posterior 3rd of the intervertebral space had significantly worse segmental lordosis compared to those placed in the anterior or middle 3rd. Our study shows that an average delta change of 8.03° can be achieved with 12° cages and this when done at each subsequent level results in a progressive harmonious creation of lordosis.

IRB approval was obtained for this study.

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CMIS, minimally invasive, cages, lordotic, segmental lordosis, Interbody Fusion, hyperlordotic, adult spinal deformity
Volume 11 Issue 3
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